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post #31 of Old 06-30-2013
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Re: 6 Americans, 1 Brit vanish at sea

Many materials display linear elastic behavior, defined by a linear stress-strain relationship, as shown in the figure up to point 2, in which deformations are completely recoverable upon removal of the load; that is, a specimen loaded elastically in tension will elongate, but will return to its original shape and size when unloaded.

After the yield point, ductile metals will undergo a period of strain hardening, in which the stress increases again with increasing strain, and they begin to neck, as the cross-sectional area of the specimen decreases

The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating stresses in structural members, such as beams, columns and shafts. The methods employed to predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes may take into account various properties of the materials other than material yield strength and ultimate strength; for example, failure by buckling is dependent on material stiffness and thus Young's Modulus.

n materials science, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied stress without failure. The field of strength of materials deals with loads, deformations and the forces acting on a material. A load applied to a mechanical member will induce internal forces within the member called stresses. The stresses acting on the material cause deformation of the material. Deformation of the material is called strain, while the intensity of the internal forces is called stress

Transverse loading - Forces applied perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a member. Transverse loading causes the member to bend and deflect from its original position, with internal tensile and compressive strains accompanying the change in curvature of the member.[1] Transverse loading also induces shear forces that cause shear deformation of the material and increase the transverse deflection of the member.
Axial loading - The applied forces are collinear with the longitudinal axis of the member. The forces cause the member to either stretch or shorten.[2]
Torsional loading - Twisting action caused by a pair of externally applied equal and oppositely directed force couples acting on parallel planes or by a single external couple applied to a member that has one end fixed against rotation.

\sigma=\frac{F}{A}, where F is the force [N] acting on an area A [m2].

Compressive stress (or compression) is the stress state caused by an applied load that acts to reduce the length of the material (compression member) in the axis of the applied load, in other words stress state caused by squeezing the material. A simple case of compression is the uniaxial compression induced by the action of opposite, pushing forces. Compressive strength for materials is generally higher than their tensile strength. However, structures loaded in compression are subject to additional failure modes dependent on geometry, such as buckling.

Tensile stress is the stress state caused by an applied load that tends to elongate the material in the axis of the applied load, in other words the stress caused by pulling the material. The strength of structures of equal cross sectional area loaded in tension is independent of shape of the cross section. Materials loaded in tension are susceptible to stress concentrations such as material defects or abrupt changes in geometry. However, materials exhibiting ductile behavior (most metals for example) can tolerate some defects while brittle materials (such as ceramics) can fail well below their ultimate material strength.

Shear stress is the stress state caused by the combined energy of a pair of opposing forces acting along parallel lines of action through the material, in other words the stress caused by faces of the material sliding relative to one another. An example is cutting paper with scissors[4] or stresses due to torsional loading.

A material's strength is dependent on its microstructure.

In materials science, fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading.

Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form

Damage in wood is principally the result of fatigue. Fatigue is the process of progressive localised irreversible change in a material, and may culminate in cracks or complete fracture if conditions that initiated or propagated the process persist.

Although wood is the world's most widely used structural material, whether measured by volume consumed or value of finished construction, its behaviour is not well understood even by people who have spent their careers studying it.
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