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Old 08-24-2013
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Re: what kind of headwind should a sailboat be able to motor through?

Black smoke is the most common smoke emitted from diesel engines. It indicates poor and incomplete combustion of the diesel fuel. There are many causes, including

Incorrect timing
Dirty or worn injectors
Over-fuelling
Faulty turbocharger (ie not enough air to match the fuel)
Incorrect valve clearance Incorrect air/fuel ratio
Low cylinder compression (eg sticking piston rings or worn components)
Dirty air cleaner
Restricted induction system (eg system too small or kinked inlet piping)
Other engine tune factors
Poor quality fuel
Excessive carbon build up in combustion and exhaust spaces
Cool operating temperatures

more info;Cost Effective Maintenance - Diesel Smoke tells YOU a Story...
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