1) The elongated holes are called halyard slots and usually have a cast fitting put into them to protect the line from chafe and help it lead fair. Most masts aren't sealed, so will let the water out at the base. This is often a cause of wet bilges on keel stepped mast boats.
2) Most aluminum masts have a cast or machined piece at the top that holds the windex, anchor lights and masthead sheaves. This piece also is where the tangs for the shrouds and stays connects. It should be held in place by two or more bolts.
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You know what the first rule of sailing is? ...Love. You can learn all the math in the 'verse, but you take
a boat to the sea you don't love, she'll shake you off just as sure as the turning of the worlds. Love keeps
her going when she oughta fall down, tells you she's hurting 'fore she keens. Makes her a home.
—Cpt. Mal Reynolds, Serenity (edited)
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Still—DON'T READ THAT POST AGAIN.