recommend small (22-28'''') performance sailboat
You might add a Ranger 26 to your list. This Gary Mull design from the early 70s is a good performer with basic "camping" facilities below. The boat is easily handled by one person and you could probably find one for well below 10k. It would definitely perform better than a folkboat, but probably not as perky as the Ultimate or Express boats. Headroom is limited, but the facilities are not too bad for a weekend experience. A good boat for a good price, if you can find one in decent condition.
While it is not considered trailerable, I think what you are looking for is something that can be placed on a trailer by a travellift then hauled to someones backyard, or other reasonable storage area; not a boat that is necessarily launched from a ramp. I don''t think you are really looking for a boat that can be launched from a ramp.
Other reasonable options might include Cal 25 or Bill Tripp designed Columbia 26.