When to run off? Good question. I reckon a couple of things need to happen to even allow you the choice. Running isn't gonna take ya deeper into the storm and running won't place you on a Lee shore. Every boat reaches a limit with regards to beating to windward or beam reaching. So far I haven't found Oh Joy's limits but then again, I don't go looking to try that anymore. Once you've gotten to where ya can't beat or run on the beam, you have two choices, run off or heave to. I can see running to a certain point but not to the point of risking pitch-poling, if I'm going in that direction. If not, I'll heave to. It's been shown that ya lose much less ground heaving to than ya do running.
Yep, boats have limits and people have limits. We try to keep that in mind when we choose what situations we allow ourselves to get into.
We choose our destinations and choose our windows.
We buy our ground tackle and pay our insurance.
We purchase gear and try to educate ourselves, and hone our skills.
The idea is to better your odds. To increase your chances of success.
But there is no way we are never going to feel completely safe at sea in heavy weather.
If there were, we wouldn't be doing it.