General rule, sure. Anything that puts your, what is it? Center of mass above your center of gravity? then the boat will continue to roll until it comes to rest in the stable inverted position. Look for those phrases, look for numbers relating to force and inertia from wind and waves--the numbers are out there. I think Marchaj's Seaworthiness the Forgotten Factor is one of many texts that go into the details that are to be considered.
Whether that is caused by wind, waves, flooding, interior ballast or supplies shifting--that's where it can get complicated and for that you can look at each circumstance that concerns you, to see where the upset happens.
Many (most?) hulls have enough weather helm that they'll round up and point into the wind before wind alone can roll them further than a broach, although a good spinaker broach can push harder and faster.
Usually the weak point is the human onboard, who hasn't secured things, reefed things, or lost control of things. Usually you will be far too busy, far too quickly, to keep track of fine details in the "how much further till we capsize?" considerations.