were terrifying. The first was a galley fire aboard my 37-foot sloop many years ago. Needing to replace the propane stove in Panama, the only cooker I could find was a ridiculous kerosene wick model with burners that looked like a menorah. Still, I was in a hurry, as usual, so I jury rigged it in place and set sail. A few days later, I put the teapot on the stove, lit the wicks, and went on deck. Soon my nose told me something was wrong and I dashed below. The cheap stove's kerosene reservoir had melted, and the wicks were burning out of control. I had a new fire blanket aboard, and it would have been perfect to smother the flames, but it was stored behind the stove and I couldn’t reach it. I ordered my mate to get a bucket of seawater, and then I started to panic. Can you use water on kerosene? I couldn't remember. Instead I grabbed the dry chemical extinguisher mounted in the cockpit locker. I had never used a fire extinguisher and I wasn’t sure if you used it like a gun or like a spray can of pest control. Frantically I read the simply instructions on the side. I struggled to pull the pin and then recklessly fired away. I should have aimed at the base of the fire but luckily the flames died out quickly anyway. The mess was unbelievable and the Chinese-made stove was never the same, but the incident taught me two lessons: (1) keep all your fire fighting equipment where you can reach it and most importantly, (2) know how to use it.
My other fire was aboard an Ocean 71 that I delivered from Newport, RI, to Stockholm. We were in the Baltic, ripping along under spinnaker when we heard a sound like the engine turning over. I went below and opened the engine room door. What had been a small fire suddenly became a much larger fire, fed by the tasty oxygen I had just let in. This time I reacted quickly and grabbed the hefty 20-pound, dry-chemical extinguisher mounted on the engine room door. It was obvious that the fire was emanating from the starter motor. I took my time and aimed carefully at the base. Then I pulled the pin and fired. To my surprise and relief, the flames died out immediately. After I cleaned up another colossal mess, I traced the source of the fire. Somehow, probably through an electrical short, the starter motor had engaged. This created a lot of heat that eventually ignited the wires leading to the alternator. It was a freak accident and luckily I reacted before the fire spread to the batteries. The damage was minimal.
My experiences represent the two most common areas where fires originate aboard sailboats, the galley and the engine room. Other causes of fire may be faulty, or just old, wiring, cabin heaters, electric motors, lightning, overhead power lines, and of course, flammable fuel sources. Gasoline and propane are the two most dangerous items on any boat and when a fire results from an explosion it is almost always too late to do anything except grab a PFD and head for the water.
Onboard fires fall into three classes: A, B, and C, identified by the material that is fueling the flames.
Class A: Ordinary Combustibles, including wood, paper, foam, fiberglass, rubber, some plastics, and other materials that burn easily. Class A fires are best extinguished with water.
Class B: Flammable Liquids, including gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, paints, varnishes, oils, greases, and flammable gases. Class B fires can be extinguished by smothering with a fire blanket, or with type B-I or B-II extinguisher.
Class C: Electrical fires, including any energized electrical equipment. Class C fires are best extinguished with sodium carbonate (dry chemical), carbon dioxide (which can be dangerous to humans) or new Halon alternatives like FE-241 and FM-200.
Logically, fire extinguishers are also classified with the same system. Most sailboats rely on portable extinguishers. It doesn't make any sense but to spend a few extra dollars for a tri-class (ABC) dry-powder extinguisher that can be used on all types of fires. The Coast Guard also rates extinguishers as either B-I or B-II based on how much extinguishing agent they contain according to weight. B-I extinguishers need at least two pounds of dry-chemical agent, or four pounds of CO 2. B-II extinguishers must have 10 pounds of dry chemical and 15 pounds of CO-2. The Coast Guard has minimum requirements for recreational boats and they are just that—minimal. For boats less than 26 feet, one B-I extinguisher is required. Boats 26 feet to 40 feet need either two B-Is or one B-II. Boats over 40 feet need three type B-Is, or one B-1 and one B-II. Most portable dry-chemical models are usually in the two to three pound range. These small, B-I extinguishers will discharge for approximately eight to10-second and have a maximum range of 10 feet. A five-pound B -1 extinguisher discharges for 13 to 15 seconds and has a range of about 15 feet.
I am like Shere Khan in Kipling's Jungle Books—I take fire seriously. On my 44-foot ketch, I have six type B-I, 2.5 pound, tri-class extinguishers, twice the Coast Guard requirement. They cost less than $20 each. I have one in the stern lazarette, one on the bulkhead by the companionway, one across from the galley, one in the engine room, and one in each sleeping cabin. I don't want to search for an extinguisher when a fire breaks out. I also have a fire blanket in the galley, in a locker away from the stove. The Coast Guard requires that all extinguishers have a pressure gauge but it is your responsibility to make sure they're current.
Prior to 1994 many larger sailboats were fitted with automatic Halon systems, especially in the engine room. For years Halon was an effective fire fighting agent. The system was triggered by heat and could be used on any type of fire. Because it was automatic, the engine room door remained closed limiting the available oxygen needed to fuel the fire. It left little residual damage, as opposed to the huge mess made by powder extinguishers. Unfortunately, Halon was deemed environmentally dangerous since it was contributing to the hole in the ozone layer, and it was banned from production in the US. Capitalism spawned a new, safe, Halon alternative, FE-241, which has many of the same attributes of Halon, but it's just not as compact. Fireboy markets the best-known system and while these units are expensive, they feature heat-activated discharge and a panel gauge that indicates the level of charge.
It can't be overemphasized that fire on a boat is a serious problem. Your world is burning, help is likely a long way away and you have nowhere to go except overboard. At the risk of stating the obvious, the best protection is avoiding fires to begin with. Routine maintenance and good seamanship can all but eliminate fire risk. Still, fires are unavoidable and you must be prepared to deal with the situation at hand.
Remember, if you have a class A fire, nothing is more effective than quick action with a bucket of seawater. It may seem odd at first to be throwing water "into" your boat, but for this very purpose you should keep a bucket with a lanyard handy. The advantage of water in this type of fire is that it tends to cool much of the surrounding area, preventing a smoldering fire from restarting. Quick action and cool thinking is the key to fighting all fires successfully.
Naturally, if you're sailing near shore where quick help may be available, the first step is to notify the Coast Guard on the VHF radio. If you are wary of going below, use your cell phone to call 911. Fiberglass boats burn quickly and at extreme temperatures. They also give off noxious fumes. If you smell the hull burning, you should take immediate steps to abandon ship. Once the hull is burning, the fuel tanks can't be far behind. If you have time, launch the dinghy and the liferaft and move away from the burning vessel as quickly as possible.
Almost all fires begin small and if you react quickly you can contain and eventually extinguish them. Remember, however, that even if you're just 10 miles offshore it is unlikely that the Coast Guard or anyone else will be able to assist you