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post #1 of Old 03-11-2004 Thread Starter
Joy Smith
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A Safe and Sound Galley

Preparing food in cramped quarters is just one of the challenges facing cooks afloat.
Boaters have every excuse to be lax when it comes to food preparation and storage. Aboard many boats it's difficult to sanitize with no hot water to clean cooking and dining utensils properly. And the need to confine food preparation to a postage-stamp space saddled with erratic cooking and cooling devices further complicates the issue. With the news full of food-borne disease horror stories, every sailor should understand the very real potential for food contamination when meal-making moves to the boat.

Bacterial gremlins are everywhere and attacks can occur up to 30 days after consuming tainted food. Varying symptoms—aches, dizziness, nausea, cramps, and diarrhea—are often confused with the flu and other illnesses, but some food-borne ailments can cause permanent health problems, even death. Bacteria are inventive little critters that love food as much as we do. Some favorite munching targets for bacteria are protein foods, such as meat, seafood, eggs, and dairy products. We can’t see them, but bacteria are there; and tainted food often doesn’t appear, smell, or taste spoiled. Sailors should know that bacterial life begins at 40 degrees Fahrenheit and expires at 140 degrees. Between these two extremes it takes these prolific no-see-ums only 20 minutes to double in number.

In addition to practicing good hygiene, I recommend the following four-point attack plan to ensure that these bad guys won't be sharing the feast at your salon table.

Underscoring Cleanliness  Sanitizing galley preparation areas and hands is very easy if you use some of the new products available at the supermarket—there now are antibacterial kitchen and hand wipes and cleaners that don’t require water while usurping no more space than traditional cleaners. Cold water is ineffective in dissolving the grease and food residue from dirty dinnerware and pans, making them prime bacterial breeding grounds. One way to tackle this problem is to boil a pot of freshwater to use as a sanitary rinse. The salt in ocean water also stems bacterial growth, so a warm saltwater bath might equally do the trick.

Keeping cooked foods separate from raw foods will help eliminate problems with bacteria on board.
Avoiding Cross Contamination   When bacteria in one food are transferred to another, usually via a cutting board, knife, plate, spoon, or your hands,cross contamination occurs. Wash that knife after using it to slice a sandwich before dipping it back into the mayonnaise jar (better yet, buy mayo in squeezable squirt bottles). Clean hands between tastes and tasks. Do your best to keep the utensils and containers used for raw protein foods separate from those used for cooked food. Raw meat drippings can transfer bacteria to cooked meat or vegetables placed on the same plate or cutting board. Sterilize cutting boards by scrubbing with chlorine-based cleansers or dousing with boiling water. Because knife marks and deep groves will trap bacteria, plastic cutting boards hold fewer bacteria than wooden ones.

Cooking Safely   Sailors can kill off bacterial parasites by cooking meats, seafood, eggs, and other protein foods to 140 degrees Fahrenheit or hotter. Use a meat thermometer or a doneness sensor placed at the center of the item to ensure this temperature is attained. And don’t create party fare for bacteria by taking a partially cooked pan of lasagna or any other dish down to the boat with plans to finish cooking it there.

Chilling Well  Arriving at the boat with questionably safe food is no way to start a vacation or a short trip. Load the cooler only with prechilled foods and drinks. Prepare and refrigerate, or freeze, perishable dishes before your trip. Pack frozen foods together so they will keep each other cold and stash the cooler in the shade until you can unload it at the boat.

Efficiently designed galleys can take some of the fight out of dealing with bacteria. 
A cooler or an icebox on board often suffers fluctuations in temperature as lids or doors open and close, ice melts, or power sources are connected and disconnected. This activity can cause food to deteriorate much more quickly than at home. Thermometers are cheap—use one in a refrigerator or icebox to ensure a consistent 40-degree-Fahrenheit temperature is maintained. And avoid adding warm food to a cold icebox unless you toss in fresh ice along with it.

Freezing slows molecular movement, which essentially causes bacteria to take a nap; thus as long as foods remain frozen, they will be safe to serve. Setting frozen food out on a countertop to thaw is risky since the defrosted juices will attract our fiendish bacteria. Allow protein foods to thaw gradually in the icebox or defrost them in a microwave oven just before cooking. To be certain that foods left in a boat freezer have remained solid, leave a cup of ice cubes in the freezer. If you return to find the cubes have turned into a cup of water, your goodies have been compromised.

Avoid leaving perishable foods out for more than two hours, or one hour in hot weather. At a boat party, put out only what you feel will be consumed and keep the remainder on ice or hot on the stove. Instead of refilling a platter, replace it with a fresh one. Cover hot foods, like baked beans or cooked burgers, to keep them hot longer. If barbecuing, set cooked food to the side of the grill where it will stay warm without overcooking. To keep salads and deli meat platters safe in 90-degree weather, serve them on ice.

Keeping the crew healthy and well-fed is the ultimate goal of safety in the galley.
Understanding Leftovers  Toss out questionable leftovers and package those that you are comfortable saving so they will cool quickly by maximizing surface area. Divide large quantities into small, shallow plastic containers or sturdy plastic zippered bags. Foil-wrapping is also good, but you should double wrap to prevent seepage. Set packets or containers over or under a bag of ice or near the coils or holding plate of your refrigerator. Also try prechilling a large quantity of very hot food in a separate cooler before dropping it into your icebox or refrigerator.

A cook is always plagued with questions of whether to risk serving the chicken that never got cooked, the leftover spaghetti sauce that’s been living in the refrigerator for the past week, or the days-old remains of takeout Chinese food. Spoiled foods may (or may not) smell funny, change to an odd color, feel slimy or sticky, or get moldy.

In my experience, food spoils twice as quickly when stored in an icebox or cooler than in a constantly running refrigerator. Raw chicken that might keep a few days at home needs to be cooked within a day and an opened jar of spaghetti sauce may survive only two or three days when kept in a boat icebox or erratic refrigerator. If your restaurant leftovers have hung around for a couple of hours without refrigeration, toss them. Otherwise, they will keep three or four days in a traditional refrigerator or one to two days on the boat. Be sure to reheat leftovers to steaming hot before serving warm.

A Canadian firm is supposedly developing a plastic food wrap that will change color if the food is contaminated with dangerous bacteria. The best news is that this product will cost no more than today’s supermarket sandwich wraps. Nevertheless, prevention will always be the best way to quell the bacterial challenge and ensure a healthy, happy, well-fed crew.

Food Safety Guidelines

I've taken the USDA food safety guidelines for some common foods and adapted them to include estimates for the icebox/inconsistent refrigeration scenario. Follow these and you should stay out of trouble when it comes to maintaining a bacteria-free menu on board.

Cold Storage Guidelines
Deli and convenience foods3-5 daysdon’t freeze well1-2 days
Hot dogs, opened1 wk 2 mos.3-4 days
Hot dogs, unopened2 wks2 mos.1 wk
Lunch meats, packaged, unopened3-5 days2 mos.2-3 days
Deli-sliced ham3-5 daysfreezes, watery3 days
Deli-sliced turkey3 daysfreezes, watery1-2 days
Deli-sliced roast beef3 daysfreezes ok1-2 days
Soups & stews3-4 daysfreeze 3 mos.2-3 days
Ground meat/burgers1-2 daysfreeze 4 mos.1 day
Bacon7 days freeze 1 mo.3-4 days
Steaks, chops, roasts3-5 daysfreeze 4 mos.2 days
Fresh chicken, turkey1-2 days 1 day
Meat leftovers3-4 days 1 day 


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