The book Desirable and Undesirable Characteristics of Offshore Yachts
has a chapter which describes tests of yachts in wave pools. They capsize boats and measure their ability to right themselves. Of course, if your main is up and sheeted in tight, or if when your boat is capsized it becomes a flat bottom boat, the time to right itself is significantly longer.
Knowing the characteristics of the boat you're sailing should inform your decision of when to go below and how to 'gracefully degrade' from the effort to make way.
Additional good advice in this book includes - having a mast with a Storm Tri-sail bent on and ready to go... for instance, the Lefiell OM3D mast has a 2nd integral track for a storm tri-sail. Cruising Mast & Boom Assemblies
This book was an easy read... I absorbed it in 3 weeks... Lots of expert knowledge regarding cruising boats.