, most cities have adopted a mooring field concept where the put the prime locations under their mooring zone, and you need to pay the city. but if you are not in a mooring zone you are fine.
OTOH, local police have been known to harass boats if you anchor in front of a mc-mansion. while they are usually wrong, not worth the trouble of arguing .
Most cities? No, there are a grand total of five cities in Florida that are participating in the mooring field trials. That's it.
There has, however, been a lot of historic conflict between cities, counties, and the state concerning who has jurisdiction over anchoring and mooring. Actually, there has been a lot of wrangling over this and many other subjects, with a lot of cities wanting to be free to regulate anything they want in any way they want, and the state legislature repeatedly reminding them that state law takes precedence over city law.
The state says you can anchor anywhere that you are not blocking navigation, except for in the five mooring field trials where anchoring is restricted within the mooring fields. State law specifically says that cities cannot pass their own, more restrictive, anchoring regulations. Because there are no penalties for cities that choose to flagrantly disregard state law, though, cities still send out their water-cops to tell you that you can't anchor here or there and to harass you into moving. Fight it in court and you will win (assuming you have a halfway decent attorney), but it will cost you time and money.
Luckily, there seem to be only a few places where this is a serious issue. BoatUS has a lot of good information on this subject, and cruisersnet.net is also a good source for current information.