Re: Paradigm changing boats
Not sure at what point a paradigm shift occurs. Everyone credit Igor Sikorsky with the paradigm shift of the helicopter, but he was far from the first one to even fly one, let alone design one.
- 400 BC, Chinese children playing with bamboo flying toys.
- 1480 Leonardo da Vinci designed an "aerial screw" flying machine.
- 1861 Gustave d'Amecourt demonstrated a small steam powered helicopter made of aluminum. It didn't get off the ground, but it was the first use of the word "helicopter".
- 1877 Enrico Forlanini in a park in Milan flew an unmanned steam driven helicopter 13 meters in the air. It stayed aloft for 20 seconds.
- 1878 in France Emmanuel Dieuaide flew a model more than 12 meters (40 feet) high for 20 seconds. It had two opposite spinning rotors and was powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground.
- 1885 Thomas Edison in the US built a helicopter but it failed to take off, exploding and burning one of his workers.
- 1901 Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak, used an internal combustion engine (petrol) to fly a model helicopter that flew 0.5 meters (1.6 feet) above the ground. In 1905 his helicopter flew 1.5 km at a height of 4 meters (13 feet).
- 1907, two French brothers, Jacques and Louis Brequet developed the Gyroplane No.1. The plane lifted its pilot up into the air about two feet (0.6 m) for a minute but it needed two people on the ground to keep it balanced.
- 1907 French inventor Paul Cornu designed and built a Cornu helicopter that lifted its inventor to 1 foot (0.3 m) and remained aloft for 20 seconds. This machine was later abandoned.
- 1908, Thomas Edison patented his own design for a gasoline powered helicopter with box kites attached to a mast, but it never flew.
- 1912 William J. Purvis and Charles A. Wilson applied for and received a patent for a "Flying Machine" of the helicopter type on June 4, 1912. With Purvis at the controls it flew 20 feet into the air.
- 1924, in Argentine Raúl Pateras Pescara's helicopter No. 3 could fly for up ten minutes. He also developed the idea of tilting the engine and blades to make the machine fly forward.
- 1927 Abert Gillis von Baumhauer received the first patent for a true working helicopter.
- 1937 The German Fw 61 broke all the helicopter world records and several of the aircraft flew during World War 2.
- In the US LePage had the patent rights for the German Fw 61, and he built the XR-1.
- Igor Sikorsky was competing with LePage to build the first military helicopter. Sigorsky developed a single small rotor on the tail to keep his VS-300 steady. His later model, the R-4, got military orders for over 400 before the end of the World War 2.
- At the same time Arthur Young was working for Bell Aircraft to eventually develop the Bell 47, the most popular civilian model for the next 30 years.
I think the old adage, "history is written by the victor" was never more true.
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