Re: Frozen rudder shaft Hinterhoeller 28
Look at the catalogue cuts from C.S. Osborne (Faster posted a link above). These are the standard tools for pulling packing.
The packing is probably a square flax braid. The flax (linen) is saturated with bee's wax. Over the years this can become quite stiff. It is easier to remove one ring at a time. Generally the flexible packing is cut to length, shaped around the shaft, and tamped to the bottom of the stuffing box. Each ring is put on top of the last in exactly the same way except that the joints are staggered. If there are three rings the joints are offset 120 degrees.
If you are lucky you'll hook into the packing near the cut. Try hooking the packing with two hooks, picks, or screws on opposite sides and working up one side and then the other.
As I said previously, if there's a grease cup on the stuffing box there will be a lantern ring. The lantern ring will be two piece and have holes in the upward face. You should hook into those holes to remove the lantern ring so you can get at the packing beneath it. Additionally, if the packing was greased the grease is porbably caked up. Use kerosene or some other solvent to remove the smutz.
Boiling water will make the bee's wax more pliable. Be patient. Be persistent. You'll get it.