First, this forum is awesome. So much good information that I spend lots of time at It and still feels that is so much to cover. That said...
I got the sailing bug about 1 year ago, and all I can think about now is sailing. I know basics of sailing - certified US sailor - but no experience in the blue water, overnight passages, etc.
Welcome to Sailnet. I'd highly recommend you read this POST
to help you get the most out of sailnet. I'd also recommend you work your way up to doing bluewater passages... remember, most of the boats you're going to be looking at are far tougher than you are, and unless you work your way up, you won't be likely to do well.
Several people who went off on bluewater passages with little experience ended up cutting their trips short. One example is Heather Neill, who was in a Flicka, which is a solid small bluewater boat, but returned only a few days after leaving Florida.
Right now I am getting ready - financially - to buy a sail boat and sail it to Brazil. One year from now, I should have about 20k reserved to buy a boat. I believe that I should spend about 50% of that on buying the boat, and use the rest for refit and unseen expenses.
1- Is it realistic to spend a total of 20k (including boat and refit)to buy a boat to do the trip?
It depends a lot on what boat you're looking at. If you're looking at a smaller bluewater capable boat, like one of the <35' ones on James Baldwin's Boat List
. Finding a bluewater capable boat for $10,000 that is in reasonably good condition will not be easy.
2- Is sailing down to panama, crossing the channel then sailing through the coast until I reach Brazil a good plan?
I have another 1 million questions but will save them for later.
Thank you all
A Panama canal crossing is probably a much better idea than rounding The Horn.
And probably the best way to get to Brazil, unless you want to do a circumnavigation.