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-   -   A Safe and Sound Galley (http://www.sailnet.com/forums/cruising-articles/20416-safe-sound-galley.html)

Joy Smith 03-11-2004 07:00 PM

A Safe and Sound Galley
 
<HTML><HTML><P><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 align=right border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=8></TD><TD vAlign=top align=left width=221><IMG height=329 src="http://www.sailnet.com/images/content/authors/jsmith/121200_JS_cooking.jpg" width=221><BR><DIV class=captionheader align=left><FONT color=#000000><B>Preparing food in cramped quarters is just one of the challenges facing&nbsp;cooks afloat.</B></FONT></DIV></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=2 height=8></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>Boaters have every excuse to be lax when it comes to food preparation and storage. Aboard many boats it's difficult to sanitize with no hot water to clean cooking and dining utensils properly. And&nbsp;the need to confine food preparation to a postage-stamp space saddled with erratic cooking and cooling devices further complicates the issue. With the news full of food-borne disease horror stories, every sailor should understand the&nbsp;very real potential for food contamination when meal-making moves to the boat.</FONT> </P><P><FONT face=Arial>Bacterial gremlins are everywhere and attacks can occur up to 30 days after consuming tainted food. Varying symptoms—aches, dizziness, nausea, cramps, and diarrhea—are often confused with the flu and other illnesses, but some food-borne ailments can cause permanent health problems, even death. Bacteria are inventive little critters that love food as much as we do. Some favorite munching targets for bacteria are protein foods, such as meat, seafood, eggs, and dairy products. We can’t see them, but bacteria are there; and tainted food often doesn’t appear, smell, or taste spoiled. Sailors should know that bacterial life begins at 40 degrees Fahrenheit and expires at 140 degrees. Between these two extremes it takes these prolific no-see-ums only 20 minutes to double in number. </P><P><TABLE align=right border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=8></TD><TD></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></FONT><FONT face=Arial>In addition to practicing good hygiene, I recommend the following four-point attack plan to ensure that these bad guys won't be sharing the feast at your salon table.</FONT> <P><FONT face=Arial><B>Underscoring Cleanliness&nbsp; </B>Sanitizing galley preparation areas and hands is very easy if you use some of the new products available at the supermarket—there now are antibacterial kitchen and hand wipes and</FONT><FONT face=Arial color=#ff0000> </FONT><FONT face=Arial>cleaners that don’t require water while usurping no more space than traditional cleaners. Cold water is ineffective in dissolving the grease and food residue from dirty dinnerware and pans, making them prime bacterial breeding grounds. One way to tackle this problem is to boil a pot of freshwater to use as a sanitary rinse. The salt in ocean water also stems bacterial growth, so a warm saltwater bath might equally do the trick.</FONT></P><P><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 align=right border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=8></TD><TD vAlign=top align=left width=298><IMG height=226 src="http://www.sailnet.com/images/content/authors/jsmith/121200_JS_kiadep.jpg" width=298><BR><DIV class=captionheader align=left><FONT face=Arial color=#000000><B>Keeping cooked foods separate from raw foods will help eliminate problems with bacteria on board.</B></FONT></DIV></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=2 height=8></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><FONT face=Arial><B>Avoiding Cross Contamination&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</B>When bacteria in one food are transferred to another, usually via a cutting board, knife, plate, spoon, or your hands,cross contamination occurs. Wash that knife after using it to slice a sandwich before dipping it back into the mayonnaise jar (better yet, buy mayo in squeezable squirt bottles). Clean hands between tastes and tasks. Do your best to keep the utensils and containers used for raw protein foods separate from those used for cooked food. Raw meat drippings can transfer bacteria to cooked meat or vegetables placed on the same plate or cutting board. Sterilize cutting boards by scrubbing with chlorine-based cleansers or dousing with boiling water. Because knife marks and deep groves will trap bacteria, plastic cutting boards hold fewer bacteria than wooden ones. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial><B>Cooking Safely&nbsp;&nbsp;</B> Sailors can kill off bacterial parasites by cooking meats, seafood, eggs, and other protein foods to 140 degrees Fahrenheit or hotter. Use a meat thermometer or a doneness sensor placed at the center of the item to ensure this temperature is attained. And don’t create party fare for bacteria by taking a partially cooked pan of lasagna or any other dish down to the boat with plans to finish cooking it there. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial><B>Chilling Well</B>&nbsp; Arriving at the boat with questionably safe food is no way to start a vacation or a short trip. Load the cooler only with prechilled foods and drinks. Prepare and refrigerate, or freeze, perishable dishes before your trip. Pack frozen foods together so they will keep each other cold and stash the cooler in the shade until you can unload it at the boat.</FONT></P><P><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 align=right border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=8></TD><TD vAlign=top align=left width=294><IMG height=206 src="http://www.sailnet.com/images/content/authors/jsmith/121200_JS_catalcuisine.jpg" width=294><BR><DIV class=captionheader align=left><FONT face=Arial color=#000000><B>Efficiently designed galleys can take some of the fight out of dealing with bacteria.&nbsp;</B></FONT></DIV></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=2 height=8></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><FONT face=Arial>A cooler or an icebox on board often suffers fluctuations in temperature as lids or doors open and close, ice melts, or power sources are connected and disconnected. This activity can cause food to deteriorate much more quickly than at home. Thermometers are cheap—use one in a refrigerator or icebox to ensure a consistent 40-degree-Fahrenheit temperature is maintained. And avoid adding warm food to a cold icebox unless you toss in fresh ice along with it. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial>Freezing slows molecular movement, which essentially causes bacteria to take a nap; thus as long as foods remain frozen, they will be safe to serve. Setting frozen food out on a countertop to thaw is risky since the defrosted juices will attract our fiendish bacteria. Allow protein foods to thaw gradually in the icebox or defrost them in a microwave oven just before cooking. To be certain that foods left in a boat freezer have remained solid, leave a cup of ice cubes in the freezer. If you return to find the cubes have turned into a cup of water, your goodies have been compromised. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial>Avoid leaving perishable foods out for more than two hours, or one hour in hot weather. At a boat party, put out only what you feel will be consumed and keep the remainder on ice or hot on the stove. Instead of refilling a platter, replace it with a fresh one. Cover hot foods, like baked beans or cooked burgers, to keep them hot longer. If barbecuing, set cooked food to the side of the grill where it will stay warm without overcooking. To keep salads and deli meat platters safe in 90-degree weather, serve them on ice. </FONT></P><P><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 align=right border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=8></TD><TD vAlign=top align=left width=294><IMG height=222 src="http://www.sailnet.com/images/content/authors/jsmith/121200_JS_whittington.jpg" width=294><BR><DIV class=captionheader align=left><FONT face=Arial color=#000000><B>Keeping the crew healthy and well-fed is the ultimate goal of safety in the galley.</B></FONT></DIV></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=2 height=8></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><B><FONT face=Arial>Understanding Leftovers</FONT></B><FONT face=Arial>&nbsp; Toss out questionable leftovers and package those that you are comfortable saving so they will cool quickly by maximizing surface area. Divide large quantities into small, shallow plastic containers or sturdy plastic zippered bags. Foil-wrapping is also good, but you should double wrap to prevent seepage. Set packets or containers over or under a bag of ice or near the coils or holding plate of your refrigerator. Also try prechilling a large quantity of very hot food in a separate cooler before dropping it into your icebox or refrigerator.</FONT> </P><P><FONT face=Arial>A cook is always plagued with questions of whether to risk serving the chicken that never got cooked, the leftover spaghetti sauce that’s been living in the refrigerator for the past week, or the days-old remains of takeout</FONT><FONT face=Arial color=#ff0000> </FONT><FONT face=Arial>Chinese food. Spoiled foods may (or may not) smell funny, change to an odd color, feel slimy or sticky, or get moldy. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial>In my experience, food spoils twice as quickly when stored in an icebox or cooler than in a constantly running refrigerator. Raw chicken that might keep a few days at home needs to be cooked within a day and an opened jar of spaghetti sauce may survive only two or three days when kept in a boat icebox or erratic refrigerator. If your restaurant leftovers have hung around for a couple of hours without refrigeration, toss them. Otherwise, they will keep three or four days in a traditional refrigerator or one to two days on the boat. Be sure to reheat leftovers to steaming hot before serving warm. </FONT></P><P><FONT face=Arial>A Canadian firm is supposedly developing a plastic food wrap that will change color if the food is contaminated with dangerous bacteria. The best news is that this product will cost no more than today’s supermarket sandwich wraps. Nevertheless, prevention will always be the best way to quell the bacterial challenge and ensure a healthy, happy, well-fed crew. </FONT></P><P><TABLE cellPadding=5 width=468 align=center bgColor=#c4d7fc border=1><TBODY><TR><TD><A name=sidebar><P align=left><FONT face="Trebuchet MS, arial" color=#000000 size=+2><B>Food Safety Guidelines</B></FONT></P></A><P><FONT face=Arial>I've taken the USDA food safety guidelines for some common foods and adapted them to include estimates for the icebox/inconsistent refrigeration scenario. Follow these and you should stay out of trouble when it comes to maintaining a bacteria-free menu on board.</FONT></P><TABLE cellSpacing=1 borderColorDark=#000099 cellPadding=2 width=450 align=center borderColorLight=#c4d7fc border=1><TBODY><TR align=middle><TD bgColor=#000099 colSpan=4><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" color=#ffffff size=2><B><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" color=#ffffff size=3>Cold Storage Guidelines</FONT></B></FONT></TD></TR><TR><TD bgColor=#c4d7fc><DIV align=center><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2><B>Item</B></FONT></DIV></TD><TD align=middle bgColor=#c4d7fc><DIV align=center><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2><B>Refrigerator</B></FONT></DIV></TD><TD align=middle bgColor=#c4d7fc><DIV align=center><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2><B>Freezer</B></FONT></DIV></TD><TD align=middle bgColor=#c4d7fc><DIV align=center><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2><B>Icebox</B></FONT></DIV></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Deli and convenience foods</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-5 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>don’t freeze well</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1-2 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Hot dogs, opened</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1 wk&nbsp;</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-4 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Hot dogs, unopened</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2 wks</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1 wk</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Lunch meats, packaged, unopened</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-5 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2-3 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Deli-sliced ham</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-5 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freezes, watery</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Deli-sliced turkey</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freezes, watery</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1-2 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Deli-sliced roast beef</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freezes ok</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1-2 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Soups &amp; stews</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-4 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freeze 3 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2-3 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Ground meat/burgers</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1-2 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freeze 4 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1 day</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Bacon</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>7 days&nbsp;</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freeze 1 mo.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-4 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Steaks, chops, roasts</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-5 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>freeze 4 mos.</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>2 days</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#c4d7fc><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Fresh chicken, turkey</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1-2 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle>&nbsp;</TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1 day</FONT></TD></TR><TR bgColor=#ffffff><TD><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>Meat leftovers</FONT></TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>3-4 days</FONT></TD><TD align=middle>&nbsp;</TD><TD align=middle><FONT face="Trebuchet MS" size=2>1 day&nbsp;</FONT></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><P><P>&nbsp;</P><P></TABLE><BR><BR></P></TD></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></P><P></P></HTML></HTML>


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