Apologies to the O.P. I should have at least answered the question instead of helping the thread go further off topic!
The Chesapeake Bay in November ...
November is cold, but it isn't bitter cold, usually, but it is more than just light jacket cold. I guess you'd say it is coat cold, but not coat, hat, scarf, sweater, and long underwear cold. And better protection if you are going to be getting splashed with water of course.
I don't think you want to spend a November night on the Bay without heat, it is too cold for that, though if you don't mind roughing it then a sleeping bag and some blankets piled on would probably be enough to sleep.
It is very windy in November, the winds actually decrease as you near and pass the Solstice before they pick back up in February, and late autumn winds are gusty and not steady winds like they are in the winter months. December and January is usually a kind of quiet frost-sparkled wonderland around the Bay with periods of high steady winds that don't have (m)any wind breaks to stop them from sweeping through anchorages, but it isn't nearly as breezy or gusty as October and November. When it does blow in the depths of winter, however, it really blows.
The real threat of snow is in late February through early March, you would be very lucky to see a snow of any depth in November or even December. Ice storms are always more of a concern than snow.
Water in October is cold, in November is enough for exposure and hypothermia, and by January and February is rather painful. Fresh water freezes do sometimes happen in November, more often in December, and very often in January and early February with periods of thaw - the ground is equally frozen at those times, with periods of thaw/mud and crunchy ground alternating sometimes on a daily basis from noon to night. During these depths of winter you usually get wind for periods of days and calm for longer periods, and you usually get frozen fresh water for days in a row as well determined by whatever air mass is in the area.
By late winter the sun is warmer on your face and you can expect crocus and early daffodils by mid-February in patches, but the grass doesn't green up until March and April.
Hope that helps.
Edit - I'd start crossing the Potomac in the morning, it isn't a very fun intersection to be in at night, and there aren't (m)any good places to anchor for some distance on either side of the Potomac.