Thanks for the info, guys. I am going to go do a little research.
If you like naval history and boat design than we share a common interest
The ship development since the middle ages has to do with several components: Seaworthiness, Loading capacity, sail performance and defense requirements.
You are right in saying that the defense and loading requirements are many times contradictory with sail performance but those two requirements or the relative weight in the compromise were not common to all designs. On a given time there were always different compromises depending on the use that was given to the boat and there were always use for good and fast performance ships that corresponded to the best it could be made in that time.
Regarding mainstream, I mean a boat that could satisfy all those requirements that I talked about was the Gale„o (Galeon) also called Nau, developed by the Portuguese and in lesser measure by the Spanish during the XVI century.
Here a primitive example:
The boat was designed to be very seaworthy, to have a big carrying capacity and to be able to defend itself. It is a evolution of a Carrack and the first ones were designed specially for the first voyage to India under the requirements set by the most experienced and better sailor of that era, Bartolomeu Dias:
This is a replica of that boat:
There were extensive studies carried take as model a late exemplar (1606) in what regards intact stability and the results were incredible:
Of course this was a Portuguese ship and for the calculations of CG wine weight was also took into consideration
"Regarding the wine, the average consumption was 0.5 l a day,
resulting in a weight of 40 t"
They would go and take all the risks, but not without wine
That strangely rounded hull and high free-boards allow it a reserve stability that we can only call modern and superior to the one of more modern and fast posterior ships.
And allowed them to carry an huge amount of sail (drawing made at that time):