Priming a Yanmar 2GM20 - SailNet Community

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Go Back   SailNet Community > On Board > Gear & Maintenance > Engines > Diesel
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Old 06-21-2010
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Priming a Yanmar 2GM20

New to this forum and diesel maintenance but thought I would make a post to share my recent experiences priming a Yanmar so that others may benefit from my experience and or correct my procedures.

Background
1. Engine had run / idled flawlessly
2. Then went out for a sail with fuel gage 1/8-1/4, bouncing
3. Ran 2GM20 out of fuel

Recovery
1. Replaced Fuel/water separator cartridge
2. Replaced on engine fuel filter.
3. Attempted to pull fuel from tank with manual lift pump.
4. Was able to get some fuel
5. Opted to pressurize the fuel tank to push the fuel to the engine.
6. Now had good clean fuel every plunge of manual lift.

7. Next Yanmar service manual stated to crack the fuel return on cylinder 1(pulley side???) and use the manual lift pump until air is bled from cylinder 1, Does this mean just fuel like the bleed screw at the fuel filter? I pumped and pumped then pumped somemore but could never get fuel to come out fuel return. Moved on to bleeding injectors

8. cracked each injector, cranked engine then tightened injector.

9. Engine would pop and run 1-3 seconds then die.

10. Repeated steps 1-9, on several occasions with no success.

11. returned last night and repeated procedure but this time, close the injector while the engine was being cranked.


12. SUCCESS engine is running but billows black smoke, when throttling up.

Questions
.
1. Anyone have experience with priming the yanmar? should you get fuel out of the fuel return line when using the manual lift pump?

2. Is the correct procedure to crack and retighten the injector nut while cranking.

3. The black smoke, hoping this is just the excess fuel that had been pumped in through my multiple priming attempts. Plan to check prop tonight.
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Old 06-21-2010
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1. You can do the whole procedure by manually operating the lift pump. It just takes a lot of pumping. Yes, you can keep pumping until you get clear fuel to the engine mounted filter and then back to the tank from the low pressure return line. It doesn't seem correct to me that you can push fuel all the way to the injector and back in the injector return line using the lift pump. It seems to me the high pressure fuel pump would have to do this job. However I don't have the service manual in front of me.

2. You should not have to re-tighten the injector nut while cranking. Once fuel goes through the high pressure fuel pump it cannot back flow. You can open all injector nuts, then crank the engine until you get clear fuel, then re-tighten all the injector nuts.

3. Black smoke is from too much fuel or too little air. This can be excessive load or a blocked intake or exhaust system.
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Old 06-22-2010
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Need to know how fuel line is set up . Some (Perkins6-354) have return line back to top of filter ,some back to tank(Perkins 4-248) ,some with a restrictor.

You cant pump fuel up the distributor lines by hand.Reread that bit of the manual . Something you are assuming is not so.
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Old 06-22-2010
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Hard return line between cylinders 1 & 2 then rubber hose back to fuel tank.
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Old 06-22-2010
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I think there should also be a return line from the top of the engine mounted fuel filter. The two may be tied together somewhere. You can pump the air out of the system through the filter return line, unless you have an active air leak.

I've never seen a setup where you can pump fuel through the high pressure pump and to the injectors via the lift pump. That's why you have to crank the engine to bleed the high pressure side of the system.
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Old 06-22-2010
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I have a 2GM - similare to the 2GM20. Don't havet he manual here, but you should use the manual pump to bleed downstream to the engine mounted filter and then to the high-pressure pump. I, like Steve, don't think you then should be using the hand pump to bleed past the high pressure pump. Once you have good fuel / no air to the high pressure pump, I wpuld crack the injectors and turn the engine over a few times, until you get good fuel to the injectors. Yo ucan leave the engine stop off, and even tirn the raw water seacock off, so you don't backflood the engine with water, while cranking. you should not have to crank many times anyway.

I reserve the right to be wrong, if the manual, or a mechanic says otherwise!
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Old 06-23-2010
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Should mention as well, I have never had to crack the injectors to bleed, as bleeding up to the high-pressure pump removed all of the air, and it started fine. You likely shoudl put a rag on / around the injector if you are bleeding by cranking the engine, using the high pressure pump. (ie avoid getting diesel every where and in eyes).
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Old 06-23-2010
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Northeaster has it right, except one part was not clear to me from what he wrote. Just to clarify.... do not pull the fuel stop out. This shuts off the flow from the high pressure pump. Don't worry as the engine will not start with the high pressure fuel lines opened at the injectors (at least one full turn).

Last edited by SteveInMD; 06-23-2010 at 08:47 AM.
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Old 06-23-2010
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Steve - good catch - I was mistaken. As mentioned, I have only ever had to bleed mine up to the high pressure pump, and it started and ran fine. I was thinking you would want the engine shut off engaged, so it wouldn't start - but as you pointed out - of course this would shut off the fuel to the injectors, so it would defeat the purpose.
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Old 06-26-2010
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I've had to prime my 2gm20 a couple of times. Both times I simply cracked the bleed screw on the top of the engine-mounted filter and manually actuated the pump until fuel squirted out; then cranked the engine for a few seconds and BINGO. I don't think there is enough volume down-stream of the filter to matter a whole lot. Once the starter is engaged, the lift pump should get fuel to the HP pump within a second or two.
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