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Assuming sail dimensions do not require full battens (see Guiletta post), from a cruising perspective the principal advantage of full battens is:
1. Sail does not flog, therefore is less noisy and easier to handle, especially reefing and dousing. Excellent when combined with dutchman flaking system.
Principal disadvantages are:
1. Sail does not flog, therefore does not depower as efficiently, increasing risk of broaching, etc.
2. Compression from batten to mast increases friction, in larger boats requiring special fittings/cars to reduce friction and allow battens to articulate when sail is flaked.
3. Greater chafe damage potential on (the longer) batten pockets.
4. Increase weight aloft.
5. Increase initial cost, possibly offset by longer sail life, itself partially offset by higher periodic maintenance.
Alternative is compromise of some full, some partial. Example is "2 + 2" (top 2 full, bottom 2 partial.)