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Not exactly sure of the question. The turnbuckle size is determined by the thread size on your shrouds. If you've got 5/16 thread on the studs you have to get a 5/16 turnbuckle to fit. No other size will fit.
As far as determining wind load, take your sail area in square feet, multiply it by wind speed (in knots) squared, then multiply by 0.00431 to get entire sail load. Example, for a sail with 120 square feet in 15 knots of wind, the load would be 120 x 225 x 0.00431 = 116.37 lbs.
As far as tension, you want them tight enough so there is not too much slack on the leeward shrouds. There is a sticky somewhere on adjusting rig tension that should help.