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Tow rag-Convicts being transported were refered to as tow rags by the ships crew for obvious reasons-also believe it or not the convicts as property of "his/her majesty" having been "detained at his/her majesties pleasure" were seen as a more valuable commodity than the ships crew-the same was I believe true on slave ships.Conditions of both passengers and crew on emigrant ships,usually totally overloaded converted slave ships were in fact far worse than on either slave or convict ships.
I was recently reading a book on the history of the Plimsol line(load mark).
There was one infamous vessel which sank I believe somewhere off the coast of Africa en route to Australia with loss of all lives.
At the Public enquiry a "lady" who had seen her husband off from the pilot boat remarked that the pilot had stepped down from the little pilot boat onto the ships deck so heavily was it overloaded.