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Old 10-18-2010
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How best to cope with shifty gusts while running?

I am interested in hearing your suggestions for improvement in how I responded to the below situation.

The forecast yesterday for the Delaware River near Philly was about 70 degrees air temp, with winds peaking at 15 mph around 2 pm then tapering off gradually in the afternoon to about 10 mph. We headed down to the boat around 1:00, and there was a very nice steady breeze. We cast off at 1:30 and headed downriver, beating to windward with the breeze roughly from the SW. The boat was controlling nicely with a heel of only 10 to 15 degrees (our main was reefed, and the 110% genoa was furled a turn or two). We were going out with the current, so that helped us along.

We made faster progress than expected and turned around a littler earlier than planned (prior to slackwater) because we did not want to get too far downstream. Heading back against the current is always a challenge, but doing it with the wind makes progress much better. As we turned to come back and loosened the sheets I noticed that the breeze was now WNW, so we were almost running. I don't like running because I want to avoid uncontrolled jibes, so I altered my course slightly to have the breeze off our stern port quarter in a very broad reach, with the main out as far as possible without chafing on the C250's swept-back spreader. The genoa was also out pretty far as well, and occasionally on the verge of luffing because we were almost running.

After about 15 minutes of pleasant sailing we had a sudden gust from a different direction that heeled the boat over severely. My natural instinct was to turn toward windward. This made the heeling worse temporarily, but once we completed the turn to windward things got under control. After the gust subsided we returned to our previous course with the sails trimmed the same way. However, after a few minutes the same thing happened again, and I responded the same way. This time it seemed to take an eternity to complete the turn, partly because with the mainsail out so far it was depowered and luffing instead creating weather helm to help the boat through its turn. It's sort of a blur now because things were happening so fast, but I believe I had to fire up the outboard to help us complete the turn, and had to throttle up pretty high to gain control. In retrospect, I think that the genoa was creating a strong lee helm that was not balanced by the main because it was out so far, and this was preventing us from turning to windward. We were rattled enough by this that once we finally got turned into the wind we furled the jib (which was luffing and slapping the mast violently) then doused the main (which did not want to come down easily because of all the luffing) and motored back.

While motoring back I had an opportunity to replay what had happened in my head, as well as make some more observations of the conditions. Here are some notes:

Although the skies were perfectly clear and there was no storm, the wind must have really been blowing hard. I do not have a wind speed gauge, so I do not know its exact speed. But when I looked up at the masthead windex while motoring, I could see that every few minutes the direction was changing from directly behind us to our beam, then back again. It was blowing hard enough that when the wind shifted to our beam, the boat would heel over about 10 degrees just from the resistance of the freeboard and the bare mast.

At one point I thought that we might be able to sail back under the genoa alone, but my wife had bundled all the sheets and covered the winches, and she didn't want to sail any more. It's probably a good thing, because if the boat heeled that much with bare sticks, the genoa may have pushed us over even further, and maybe produced an uncontrollable lee helm.

There was a J22 from the nearby Corinthian Yacht Club sailing in about the same direction as us, and they were having the same problem with the gusts that we were. They were under full sail and had no auxiliary power. When the gusts shifted, they did the same thing I did by turning to windward, with a severe heel during the turn. So assuming they know what they were doing, I guess I did the right thing. (I'm sure you all will chime in with your opinions on this.) On the other hand, that boat ran aground earlier over near the Jersey side of the river, which anyone with a chart knows to stay away from. So maybe they didn't know what they were doing.

I had checked weather websites, but not the NOAA weather channel. I had my VHF on 16, and am supposed to get severe weather alerts on the radio, but there were none. I was not aware of any small craft advisories in the area. But interestingly, a web search shows that one was issued for Western NY at 3:45 yesterday, and I think there was one issued on parts of the Chesapeake and Potomac also that afternoon.

I suppose that instead of turning to windward I could have turned the other way and gotten a nice push from the gust. But my concern was that a sudden shift of the wind back to the original direction could have led to a severe jibe, so I was not willing to take that risk. What is the right decision in this situation? Should I have instead turned to leeward and quickly pulled in the mainsheet to prepare for a controlled jibe? And how would I avoid a knockdown with an even greater gust?

After this experience, I think I am going to rig a second reef for next season. Previously I thought that if the wind picked up too much I could just sail under genoa. But now I can envision situations where that might create too much lee helm that might be better balanced with the main on a 2nd reef. What do you guys think? The main has cringles for a second reef, but I would have to install some blocks and install a mast gate to allow the slugs to drop far enough in the mast track.

If you have questions or comments, fire away!
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Formerly posted as "RhythmDoctor"
1998 Catalina 250WK Take Five (at Anchorage Marina, Essington, on the Delaware River)
1991 15' Trophy (Lake Wallenpaupack)
1985 14' Phantom (Lake Wallenpaupack)

Last edited by TakeFive; 10-19-2010 at 05:33 AM.
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Old 10-19-2010
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Doctor,

It's the mainsail that drove you to windward in the gusts, so a second reef would have helped. Without employing the second reef, you should have been able to sail on a broad reach with a jib alone, (assuming that would be enough to drive you up river against the current. ) If the gusts were coming from a different direction, there's just not much you can do if you have to maintain course to stay in a narrow channel or a river, you have to get the boat under control. It sounds like you did the right thing for that day.

I'm not familiar with the gooseneck set-up on your boat, so I'm not clear on why you need another mast gate to take in a 2nd reef if you have the cringles.
Do you have hooks on your gooseneck and reefing earings in your tack cringles?
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Old 10-19-2010
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Something is wrong with your sail if you have to install a mast gate to get the sail reefed. If the cringle can't reach the tack hooks, you can either install a dogbone through the cringle—a piece of webbing with rings on each end, to attach to the reefing hooks—or you need to add a jackline to the luff of your mainsail, which will allow the cringle to reach the hooks.
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Old 10-19-2010
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There's nothing wrong with the sail. The sail stop is pretty high on the mast, and that prevents the slugs from getting down to the boom. The bottom slug (below the 1st reef cringle) is on a jack line, so it loosens up when reefed, allowing the sail to flake around the boom. The remaining slugs do not have jack lines, so they hit the sail stop and cannot fall to the boom. To use the 2nd reef I either need to modify the sail to add another jack line, or remove the sail stop (so slugs can drop to the boom) and put a gate in the slot to keep the slugs from falling out of the slot. This is a common mod on Catalina 250s, and the gates are available from CatalinaDirect.
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Old 10-19-2010
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The usual approach when sailing downwind is to drive down in gusts, not turn up. This helps to reduce the apparent wind, and keeps you heading in the intended direction. Turning up increases the effect/strength of the gusts, and generally results in a difficult-to-control, hurly burly of flogging sails.

[When sailing upwind, close hauled, you do the opposite, because turning just a few more degrees to windward spills air from the sails.]

If you find that driving down in the gusts still feels very pressed and difficult to control, then you are likely over-canvassed. It is easy for a building breeze to catch you unawares when sailing downwind, as the apparent wind can fool you.

In really puffy conditions, with enough breeze deep behind you, you can reef the main way down or forego it completely. The genny can pull you downwind very nicely without any help from the main.

Also, I did not hear any mention of the preventer being rigged. If that's the case, I can certainly understand your concern about an accidental jibe. In these conditions and this point of sail, you should always have a preventer rigged.
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Old 10-19-2010
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I don't think this was relevant in this case, because RD says he had his main out as far as it could go without chafing on the shrouds (and I don't know how far back they are on a C250 but this sounds like a potential argument for a traditional backstay), but I have a question that comes up in this kind of situation:

I've seen it suggested a couple times that max efficiency running dead downwind will be with the main sheeted in a bit, allowing some wind over the front of the sail and making the foil "fly" rather than sheeting out all the way and stalling the lee side.

If that was the case, would an appropriate response to a puff (especially if you're worried about gybing) be to sheet out, and I guess move the jib to the other side to run wing-and-wing if you hadn't already?

Obviously if things build too much you could easily find yourself overpowered and at risk for a broach
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Old 10-19-2010
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Doc, good on you for throwing out the question! JRP nailed it IMO, it sounds like you had a bit much sail out and turning off the wind would have helped?

Last Saturdays sail in 20-25 with gust in the low 30's, we set two reefs in the main and the equivalent in the genoa and we were very comfortable sailing between a beam reach and broad reach. It was a good exercise/experience for us as we don't get the opportunity to sail in those conditions often around here.
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Downwind sailing, up in the lulls, down in the puffs.... that's all there is.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by puddinlegs View Post
Downwind sailing, up in the lulls, down in the puffs.... that's all there is.
Upwind sailing is just the opposite... up in the puffs and down in the lulls...
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sailingdog View Post
Upwind sailing is just the opposite... up in the puffs and down in the lulls...
Yeah, but headed upwind if you get a little overpowered by the puff, head up and starve the sails a little too much, you'll de-power and the boat will chill out (unless there's way too much wind).

Heading further down while running without touching the sheet puts you at risk for very un-chilled-out stuff...
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