It sounds like you've got a pretty good grasp of the situation. I don't know your boat (posting pics would help get a lot more answers, probably), but when it comes to structural support, in a lot of boats there is an area near where the mast attaches to the deck, below, that needs support, due mainly to the weight of the mast itself.
Gluing firring strips to the hull and then attaching woodwork to these strips is right on, but remember to use something like 5200 to attach the anchor points. Be careful with selecting screw lengths. I know that sounds logical and a no-brainer, but you'd be surprised at the number of people who "forget" and end up drilling through their hull/deck/cabin top etc. etc. etc. Good luck and welcome aboard.