This is long, but it is like trying to cover a book. Still, I will list our little bit of experience and what we do. I am sure to get some chuckles, but here goes:
1) Go to Walmart. God... I cannot even believe I am reccomending this. I hate that place... still, go to the Redneck Macy's and pick out a lot of the plastic (yes plastic) food containers with snap down food lids. I am talking about the cylindrical ones with rubber seals... not gladwear. These are awesome for keeping anything you want to keep resonably well: pasta, cereal, beans (ugh), etc. Remember, boats and the marine environment are tough on food packages. Pack everything in there... especially flour, sugar and salt. Even put your so called sealed packages in threre, like Koolaid (which actually is great on a boat and not just for kids), gatorade, etc. I don't know how moisture gets in there, but it does.
2) You can drop some basil leaves in the cereal and flour to keep the weavels (sp?) out... unless you like the extra protein.
3) You can keep eggs as described above. I personally have refridgeration and do not. We have a plastic case that you can buy at a backpack store (and maybe Walmart too) that we put our eggs in. I would not leave them in the package they come in unless you do not mind cleaning up a mess.
4) Assuming you have refridgeration, pack it as full as you can possibly pack it... even if you have to supplement with stuff that does not require refrdgeration. Do this a day or two b4 leaving dock and you will not be as power-taxed when you open your fridge. The stuff you put in will act as its own cooler and you reduce the dead air space that just evaporates when you open the hatch. Also, if you have a front opening door.. lock the piece of junk or solder it closed. Don't open that unless you are ready to defrost. Make sure your fridge is defrosted before you leave, it will be more efficient. Wrap the fridge (inside) with a some type of insulating material. I have used one of those emergency solar looking wraps for keeping you warm, but am going to go to (urgh) Sams and get a few of those coolers that keep your food cold while you shop and cut those up and use those now. Every little bit helps.
5) Unless we are just going out for a short bit, we do not really care much beer (except to trade with). Carry liquor and learn to drink it (see my 5:00 somewhere thread in provisioning for a few thoughts). However, my experience with Cuban and other 3rd world sailors is they love american beer. I once traded a twelve pack of Natural Light and a half bottle of ALbertsons Rum for 17 lobster tails (fresh). We invited over the whole anchorage and still could not eat it all. Thus, carry some but dont drink it... trade it.
7) Buy this book: Essential Galley Companion, by Amanda Swan-Neal. Great, great book with more tidbits than I can even think to share. Good recipes also.
8) Regarding the backpacking food, let me just say: I use to do deep woods backpacking before I was a sailor... yes they work. Ok, they taste tolerably well. However, I think it is the carbs in them, but you better be prepared for a level of, er, hmm, "flatulence" that will make your spouse, boyfriend, girlfriend, dog, whatever... off limits. You will not be able to breathe down below.
9) We don't cook much in salt water, but if you do, you can drop an iodine tab in it to kill off the unwanteds. Course, then your food tastes like iodine... and the taste does not come out of plastic very well. I would NOT put one in my holding tank unless you want that taste forever. Still, bad tasting water versus a case of the runs is worth it in my book... I have had both. They do make a new product that is supposed to be better and not have the taste. I have no experience with it though. It is available through most major marine suppliers, but you may have to order it??? I am not sure. Pm me if you cannot find the name and I will track down for you.
10) Before we would head off, we would always bake and cook a few great meals and stick them in the fridge. You won't eat much (and sure wont cook much) underway, but it is easy to grab and fix. Also, you can get a thermos (or two in our case), and fill it with hot water and it will keep it for a long time. Great for watches or coffee without having to fix it. Pour some in a cup and add a little broth or Raman soup pack, etc... and you have a simple meal that is easy on the stomach. For coffee, we use the Folgers singles and pack them in every space known to man. They are great and I have not had a problem with moisture escaping into them.
11) Some other food ideas: The prepackaged sausage. It has to stay refridgerated, but it is presealed and packs well in obscure places in the fridge. I do not know why, but it is awesome on the hook. Shells and cheese. We would break the boxes open and keep them in the containers and pile the sauce packets seperate. Avoid the Mac and cheese as it takes milk. Shells and cheese does not. Incidentally, mix the two together (cooked) for an even better meal. Potatoes of all shapes and sizes are a favorite on our boat. We carry the little fruit snacks (like gummy bears with Vit C) and munch on those. They keep well and are individually packed. Bannannas and apples do not keep well, but should be pretty readily available. We do take those fruits. Take ginger snap cookies. They taste resonably well and can help with sea sickness. They should be packed in ZipLock baggies. Most people do not, but we always pack a whole chicken. I LOVE grilling it out in the afternoon, enjoying a nice beverage, letting the smell drift to all of the other boats that are eating freeze dried backpack food.....
12) We keep all of our cans in the bilge (which is where you SHOULD keep your too b/c weight), but as stated above, they will rust. We would take off the labels, write on them with a perm marker what they were, and covered them in varnish. I have not tried the other methods.
13) In general: anything with a foil wrap can be left out without moisture contam, anything with a paper (and even plastic) wrap, will probably absorb moisture.
PM me with any specific questions. I can get the wife involved on more specifics. SHe is really the galley expert.