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post #1 of 16 Old 03-21-2008 Thread Starter
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names of the sails

Can anyone please help me with the names of these sails in English? In Norwegian the names are, with an attempted direct translation into English in parentheses, from left:

Jager (Chaser), Klyver (Cleaver), Fokk (Jib?), Store Gaffelseil (Main Gaffsail), Store Toppseil (Main Topsail), Mesan Gaffelseil (Mizzen gaffsail), Mesan Toppseil (Mizzen Gaffsail). The rig as a whole is called Galeas as opposed to Ketch which has triangular sails.




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post #2 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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well, the boat is a gaff-rigged ketch, since the boat has two masts and the smaller of the two is forward of the rudder post but aft of the main mast. If the two masts were the same height, I would have called it a gaff-rigged schooner.

As for the name of all that canvas... I'm going to leave that to some one who actually sails something with all those sails. As far as I can tell, you've got the last four sails right...it's the first three that usually mess me up... I would think that one of those was a staysail and one a jib...but no idea what the first one would be.

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post #3 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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[QUOTE=sailingdog;286263]well, the boat is a gaff-rigged ketch, since the boat has two masts and the smaller of the two is forward of the rudder post but aft of the main mast. If the two masts were the same height, I would have called it a gaff-rigged schooner.

uhm, dog...
the gaff rigged and ketch parts make sense (and this could just be semantics), however, i believe most schooners have the smaller masts forward of the main mast, irrespective of rudder posts...
then again..i am a charter member of AFOC, so..what do i know....

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post #4 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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Sam-

From what I've seen, schooners can have equal-sized masts or the the smaller masts forward... Most of the definitions I've seen require two masts, but most don't require that the main mast be taller than the foremast. I generally go with the Terrax.org's definition.

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post #5 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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As has been said above, the rig is clearly a Ketch rig. In English, the names of headsails vary with, country, region and time, but using the terminology that I grew up with in the mid-20th century in a U.S. mid-Atlantic state, I would call the sails from left to right as follows:

Flying jib (sometimes also called a Jib Topsail), Headstaysail (pronounced 'hed sta' sil'), Forestaysail (sometimes simply called the jib, lately shortened to simply the Staysail), Mainsail, Main topsail, Mizzen, and Mizzen topsail.

While the lowers are gaff rigged, that would not be included in the name of the sail. (In other words the order would be to given as 'bring in the main sail' and not the 'bring in the main gaffsail'.

Just out of curiousity, what is the purpose of your research?

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post #6 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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Quote:
Originally Posted by tjaldur View Post
Can anyone please help me with the names of these sails in English? In Norwegian the names are, with an attempted direct translation into English in parentheses, from left:

Jager (Chaser), Klyver (Cleaver), Fokk (Jib?), Store Gaffelseil (Main Gaffsail), Store Toppseil (Main Topsail), Mesan Gaffelseil (Mizzen gaffsail), Mesan Toppseil (Mizzen Gaffsail). The rig as a whole is called Galeas as opposed to Ketch which has triangular sails.



Here is what I would call them from foreward to aft, top to bottom:

Flying jib, yankee, jumbo, Main topsail, mainsail, mizzen topsail, mizzen.

This is the type of sail they each are:

Flying jib, forestaysail jib, staysail jib, main gaff topsail, gaff mainsail, mizzen gaff topsail, gaff mizzen.

As you can see there is a slight difference on the names of types of the sails as descriptive terms and the names used when sailing. That is just for ease of giving orders. When sailing the boat, t is obvious that the main has a gaff so there is no need to say "hoist the gaff mainsail" is there?

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post #7 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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Are not the sails identified by Plumper above as gaff topsails also called 'fishermen', particularly on a sloop rigged gaff (similar to a Chesapeak Skipjack)? That might just be a localized (US northeast) name but I've heard and read it used to describe it.
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post #8 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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A fisherman is usually set between the masts, normally used on a schooner. The head goes to the top of the main mast and the throat goes to the top of the foremast. The luff goes down the foremast to the top of the foresail. It is a tough sail to set because of the difficulty hoisting.

There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
Shakespeare, Julius Caesar IV, iii, 217
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post #9 of 16 Old 03-21-2008 Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Jeff_H View Post
As has been said above, the rig is clearly a Ketch rig. In English, the names of headsails vary with, country, region and time, but using the terminology that I grew up with in the mid-20th century in a U.S. mid-Atlantic state, I would call the sails from left to right as follows:

Flying jib (sometimes also called a Jib Topsail), Headstaysail (pronounced 'hed sta' sil'), Forestaysail (sometimes simply called the jib, lately shortened to simply the Staysail), Mainsail, Main topsail, Mizzen, and Mizzen topsail.

While the lowers are gaff rigged, that would not be included in the name of the sail. (In other words the order would be to given as 'bring in the main sail' and not the 'bring in the main gaffsail'.

Just out of curiousity, what is the purpose of your research?

Jeff

This is the rig that I have on my ship, with the exception that my topsails are triangular, not square. The main purpose is that I am considering translating my home-site into an English version. The home-site started as a story about the ship that I wanted to tell my grandchildren. But it has somehow grown alive and lives its own life outside my control. It contained parts of the history of Norwegian ships from the Vikings till now. The story of this ship as an original fishing-ship. Then parts and bits of seamanship, explanations of words and concepts of navigation, traditions of shipbuilding, maintenance of wooden ships etc. It really has grown into a monster.

Then I discovered that I had never heard any English names for these sails. Even in a correspondence with the ARC administration when I considering part-taking in the ARC race, could ARC give any other names than just jibs. So if I am to translate the home-site, then of course the names of the sails must be translated as well.

The second purpose is that I plan to sail from Norway to the Caribbeans this summer. It just may be that I will need to take some English speaking crew with me. In that case I do not want to have any misunderstanding concerning the names of the sails in the case where something must be done with them.

As an example, hull-speed is reached at 35 knots (approx. 7,5 knots). If the wind gets stronger it will be time to reduce sail-area, depending of the wind and course, the choice of which sails that is to be saved will differ.

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post #10 of 16 Old 03-21-2008
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Quote:
Originally Posted by chucklesR View Post
Are not the sails identified by Plumper above as gaff topsails also called 'fishermen', particularly on a sloop rigged gaff (similar to a Chesapeak Skipjack)? That might just be a localized (US northeast) name but I've heard and read it used to describe it.
A fisherman is flown high between the main and mizzen masts. It shares a similar function with a mizzen staysail, which is flown lower and with more sail area.

Back when more yachts carried yards, there was a triangular sail called a "raffee" that was flown above the main course and above that yard. It's in the same family of sails flown to get at the sometimes more powerful winds 50 feet above the deck.
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