Many of these buoys are uploading / downlinking to/from satellites ...
here's a listing of the various frequencies (all over the radio spectrum, but usually in the microwave area): Meteorological Satellite Frequencies
You really don't need to transcribe the buoy data, just the downlink data from the satellites.
The buoys and satellites typically have an antenna that looks similar to the helical DNA molecule.
Such 'quadrafiliar helix' antennas typically will (was <2000) be broadcasting or receiving in µmHz or higher.
Websearch NOAA and other International Meteo sources for the routines needed to translate the raw data into 'computer literate' onto your laptop, etc.
FWIW - About 20+ years ago, I was looking into such for direct downlinking of the raw NOAA, etc. Wx data for when far offshore. At that time I 'coarse bread-boarded' (at home) a Qf-helix for ~146mHz (now obsolete for sat. work) of about 900-1000 mm (~3ft.) in length; but, already had enough 'crap on de back' of my boat and decided to forego the project. The shift to microwave and 'higher' frequencies should now allow quite smaller antennas - probably in the size of handheld GPS antennas.
There's lot of info on the internet for cobbling these antennas together ... once you have the Tx/Rx requencies of what you're looking for.
Of course, you can have someone else do all the translating and analysis, and use your SSB or internet link to get their finished broadcasted product.