This article was originally published on SailNet in July 2001.
An electric windlass makes retrieval of your anchor quick and effortless, regardless of your age, gender, or strength. This ability makes the everyday anchoring experience more pleasurable. But more importantly, it also makes those situations when you must be able to move quickly to avoid harm to your boat a breeze to handle. It also makes you far more likely to set your own anchor exactly as you would like it, rather than playing the wait-and-see game because you donít want to go through the tiring manual retrieval process again.
If youíve decided to add an electric windlass to your boat, you may want to consider installing it yourself. Weíve been through the drill, so here are the steps necessary for choosing and installing your own electric windlass.
With the motor mounted below deck in the anchor locker, a vertically oriented windlass provides the sleekest appearance on the foredeck. A horizontal windlass, on the other hand, incorporates a sealed motor housing and gearbox that easily mounts entirely above deck. If correctly selected, carefully aligned and properly installed, the performance from both a horizontal and a vertical windlass should be similar. When choosing between these two types of windlasses, a couple of factors need to be taken into account apart from mere aesthetics.
First, the depth of your anchor locker is an important consideration. If your locker is shallow, youíll not want the motor from a vertical windlass protruding down into your already precious space. The problem arises when the anchor chain is being retrieved. In lockers with insufficient depth, the chain can pile up under the windlass and interfere with its operation. A second factor to consider is the vertical angle and distance from the bow roller to the windlass. On our boat, Serengeti, the five-foot distance from the roller aft to the windlass, combined with the considerable downward angle, dictated that only a horizontal windlass would provide the chain a clean lead onto the windlass gypsy. An analysis of the angle of the lead from your own bow roller is necessary to determine exactly which style and model will work best on your particular boat.
Determining what size windlass you need is a simple task. Most companies rate their windlasses in pulling power, then provide an approximate boat size or displacement for which their windlass will perform satisfactorily. If youíre on the borderline between two sizes, definitely choose the one with the higher pulling capacity if you plan to anchor frequently.
Match Making Identifying the type and specification of your existing chain can often be a challenging task, but is essential information for adding a windlass. Weíve come across countless sailors whoíve had trouble matching their existing anchor chain to their new windlass gypsy. They think they have a chain that matches, and it works on their gypsy most of the time, but then they find it slips every once in awhile. This is a definite symptom of the wrong chain-to-gypsy match.
|"Weíve come across countless sailors whoíve had trouble matching their existing anchor chain to their new windlass gypsy."|
Unfortunately, thereís little standardization with regards to chain. Thereís Proof Coil, BBB, High Test, and all sorts of special "stretched" chain available. Your chain could be any imperial size, or even metric. Thankfully, there are several methods that will help you identify your own chain. If you bought it new yourself, check your records and see exactly what kind it was. Barring having that lucky piece of information on hand, next look at the chain itself and try to find any identifying marks stamped on it. If this doesnít tell you anything conclusive, lay the chain out straight and get ready to take a number of different measurements.
Using a tape measure, count the number of links per foot of chain. Another determinant is the maximum length in inches of 100 links of chain. With a pair of calipers, measure the nominal inside width of each link, the pitch (being the length inside each link), and the wire size (thickness of the metal). See the table in the sidebar below to help identify the chain you've got.
If after this process, you still canít properly identify your existing chain, you can either take a two-foot sample with you while windlass shopping, send a sample to the windlass manufacturer to ensure a proper fit with their gypsy, or order new chain. In our opinion, youíre likely to be best served in the long run by selling your existing chain (or keep it as back-up), and buy new chain to fit your new windlass.
At this point, you may find that you have an existing hawse pipe in your foredeck that is in the wrong position and doesnít work with your new windlass. If the hawse is far enough from the windlass as to not interfere with its operation, you may wish to leave it as a secondary hawse for manually retrieved rodes, or for that old chain that youíre unable to identify. The other option is to completely fill the old hole with a replacement core material and fiberglass it over with cloth and epoxy. This may sound difficult, but itís really a simple process to fill holes like this. We had to do this ourselves on Serengeti when changing windlasses. See our article entitled Drilling and Filling Holes in Your Boat for further information.
Once your windlass is properly aligned, mark its footprint on the deck. Most manufacturers provide a template showing the outline of the windlass base and indicating where the holes go. Place this template inside your already marked footprint, and mark where each hole needs to be drilled. Youíll be marking for the mounting bolts and more than likely, a new hawse. If youíre mounting a horizontal windlass, youíll need to provide marks for the holes where the large battery cables will pass through the deck as well.
Once everythingís marked, youíre ready to drill your mounting holes. Dry-fit your windlass into these new holes and confirm the lead from the bow roller. At this time, youíll want to cut any holes through the deck for foot switches or a hand-held remote controller. Make sure you locate these in a spot that allows you to view the anchor rode as it's retrieved while keeping a safe distance away from the windlass so that clothing or feet will not become entangled during operation. To make holes for your foot switches itís best to use a hole saw bit on a power drill. If youíre not experienced using a hole saw bit, practice first on scrap lumber before cutting through your deck. Light, even pressure, and a firm grip on the drill is necessary keep it under control.
Powering Up In our opinion, the best power source for your electric windlass is your existing house battery bank. Beginning at the positive bus, run the appropriately sized battery cable (positive) to a high-amp circuit breaker. From the breaker, the positive lead along with the ground coming from your negative bus will be run under the floorboards or through lockers until finally reaching the bow area under the windlass. Use a drill with a hole saw or paddle bit to cut holes large enough for your cables to pass through. The specific cable size and circuit breaker specification will be listed in the installation material from the manufacturer. Breaker size is determined by the power draw of the windlass, while the cable size is a function of both power draw and distance from the battery bank to the windlass. Make sure you place the breaker in a convenient location to make it easy to turn on and off each time you anchor.
Once your cables have been run to the bow, the simplest wiring arrangement calls for the use of hi-amp foot switches. These switches are capable of passing the full current through to the windlass, thus eliminating the need for any sort of solenoid. If you choose to install a hand-held or cockpit remote, your wiring will be slightly more difficult as youíll need to install a solenoid at the bow. A solenoid allows you to control the high current draw of a windlass with relatively small switches. A cockpit remote will necessitate the running of small wires from the solenoid back to the switch in the cockpit. A simple wiring diagram should be provided by the windlass company.
|"We fail to see the logic behind a dedicated battery for the windlass. After several unsuccessful anchoring attempts, that battery would become discharged."|
Some sailors prefer the option of placing a dedicated battery for the windlass in the bow to avoid running large battery cables forward. We fail to see the logic behind this set-up because after enduring several unsuccessful anchoring attempts, that battery would be quite discharged. A severely discharged battery signals the alternator through a voltage sensing lead and tells the alternator to output its full current to recharge the battery. In this example, the high current output from an alternator would necessitate the installation of large battery cables to provide for the proper charging of the dedicated battery in the bow. Because of that, youíre back to running large cables all the way forward anyway.
With the wiring completed and all components securely attached, itís time to remount your anchor on the bow roller and fill that anchor locker back up with rode. Youíll want to test out your new system before you leave the dock, and make sure everything is running smoothly.
Once all systems check out, get ready to enjoy the fruits of your efforts for many years to come. Youíll find you have much more energy for exploring the many wonderful destinations that only boats at anchor can experience. And hopefully, youíll never again find yourself like the two guys Iíve been watching for the last 30 minutes 100 yards over in the anchorage who are now both on the bow, and still struggling with their heavy anchor.
Port and Starboard Windlass Debate by Sue & Larry/Tom Wood
Choosing Anchors, Rodes, and Windlasses by Liza Copeland
Mounting Deck Hardware by Tom Wood
SailNet Store Section: Anchor Windlasses
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