First of all, I would research the voyaging canoes from the late nineteenth century since they had achieved a very high level of efficiency in terms of distances covered, foils, rigs and so on. Mystic Seaport has an amazing collection of these boats, drawings and photos, and I was able to get a researcher's pass to examine and measure these boats. There is a huge amount of data points there. In particular look at the 'radix' telescoping centerboards. They were amazingly clever. The main take away from these canoes is that they were largely decked over making them more seaworthy than open canoes and often had watertight buoyancy tanks which made them recoverable from a knockdown. The early ones had side decks with a hinged panel that allowed the person in the canoe to open the windward side deck and lean to windward. Later versions had a side deck that could be hinged to provide a hiking seat, and the last versions actually had a transverse sliding seat that allowed the helmsman to sit well to windward. You had to be pretty nimble to use the hiking seats.
Beyond that, a standing lug rig is a really crummy rig for this purpose unless you only plan to beam to deep reach with no close reaching or beating involved. Standing lugs can be slow to rig, hard to rig underway, have poor sail shape and are not especially efficient once the wind is above a beam reach. While the earliest sailing canoes had standing lug rigs and lateen rigs, the rigs quickly evolved.
The best rigs that were developed were a sliding gunter rigs with 'batwind sails' these look a lot like modern sails with huge roaches but with all of the battens essentially parallel to the boom so that they could stow easily. They employed a reefing systems similar to a junk rig that could be used from the cockpit and which allowed them to sail in a broad range of conditions. Some were cat ketches and later they became were sloops with the jibs set flying on very sophisticated retrieval systems for the jibs.
The earliest evolution looked like this:
That quickly evolved into the batwing rig: (This particular canoe Successfully cruised through the Caribbean)
Here are the published dimensions of that rig: (It really needs running backstays or carbon spars and a vang).
Which evolved into this once a sliding seat was added:
and reached its ultimate development as this with a trapeze:
I think that the gunter rigged Batwing offers the best set up for your goals since it can be stored within the boat and can be reefed easily, and can be taken down and stowed from on board. The early canoers often built their own hardware and much of the hardware that we take for granted today was invented by canoers. As far as spars go, the most popular form of canoe gunter rig used telescoping tubes which would be pretty easy to do with carbon fiber tubing which while not exactly free can be gotten pretty affordably these days. https://www.rockwestcomposites.com/round-tubing