Captain Woody's World
Captain Woody's World
By Captain Woody Henderson
Last month I wrote about our cruise from Hawaii to Guam. It was a 3500nm downhill tradewind adventure. Being a 41' full keeled boat they estimated it would take us 36 days. It took 25. It's a myth that sailing slower is more comfortable. A slower moving boat is more likely to be rolly. You would have to have someone smarter than me explain the physics to you but the faster the keel is moving through the water the more stable your cruising platform. Though I enjoy being at sea, I cruise for the destinations. We all know the old cruiser adage, "If you're adjusting the sails more than once a week, then you're not cruising." Playing with the sails is part of the fun for me as is sitting back and enjoying my boat chugging along efficiently. Ninety percent of my circumnavigation was sailing downwind. Hopefully, most of your cruising will take place on downwind routes. The following are a few of the things I do to get a boat running off the wind both comfortably and fast.
The best way to get the boat to sail on deep downwind angles is to set a poled out, large size, genoa. Some cruisers use two headsails at once, both poled out. Even with our Guam-bound full-keeler, we found that we had plenty of horsepower with just the one large headsail poled out. We could run as deep as 155 degrees off the wind without the autopilot trying to execute surprise jibes - our only limitation.
Quick definition: a jib's clew does not reach the mast. A genoa's clew reaches to the mast and beyond. They are both headsails. I mostly call the sail at the front of the boat a headsail to avoid a verbal foible (say that 3x fast and then go check out your headsail).
To rig the headsail on a spinnaker pole you need two lines besides the headsail sheet. If your boat is set up for spinnakering you call these lines the topping lift and the foreguy. Without these dedicated lines you can use a spare halyard and a line tied forward (be aware of chafe at the mast sheave). Run the sheet through the outboard end of the pole. Attach the topping and foreguy, attach the pole to the mast and then hoist the topping. Unfurl the headsail and adjust the three lines so that the pole is horizontal and an inch or two forward of the shrouds. When crossing the lake they call the South Atlantic Ocean, the wind would often die at night and we would douse the headsail leaving the pole up, tied to a shroud, for use in the morning.
Why use the three lines? Chafe. I dodged a lot of work and expense on my voyage by always securing the spars. With a three line brace keeping things from moving around, the pole doesn't grind at the mast ring and the sheet doesn't chafe in the end fitting. An additional benefit is the ability to adjust the pole and thus the sail shape. Same goes for the mainsail boom. Your boom should not be moving around on any point of sail. I see it all the time and I suspect that it is the reason for so many at-sea gooseneck failures. Secure the boom. Low Key used two mainsheets (2x standard block and tackle with a cam cleat).
This got rid of the traveler, opened up the cockpit, made boom adjustment more accurate and stopped the boom from moving around. Off the wind I would move one of the sheets forward to act as a foreguy/preventer/stabilizer. Again, the two sheets and the leech of the sail created our three line brace. If I wanted a more full sail downwind I could tighten up the main topping (the topping should never be tight upwind).
If you find yourself in the unenviable position of leaving on a long downwind voyage without a spinnaker pole don't fret, there's another option. A boomed out headsail will get you there just slightly off the pace. Try as I might I could not find a spinnaker pole in all of Oahu. We hung the boom over the side of the boat, rigged a line to pull the end of it forward (a foreguy) and used the topping lift to adjust the height. Then we ran the heads'l sheet through a block clipped to the top of the end of the boom. You guessed it, jibing was a chore.
To determine perfect block placement for any headsail sheet you want to adjust it so the luff breaks evenly from the top to the bottom as you come up into the wind … in cruising, just eyeball it so the leech and the foot have a similar curve. For our rig this meant putting the boom end pretty low. This made for a wet end every now and then. Boats that break booms do so because they use a vang downwind. Vangs are rigged to the middle of the boom. When the end of the boom eventually dips in the water, and it will, the boom snaps at the vang attachment. When you secure your boom with lines to the end, the weight of the water is sent through the foreguy instead.
When the wind eased up and the boat would slow to a knot or two we'd pull up the mizzen and sheet it hard to center to reduce the rolling. Same when waiting for wind or motorsailing through a calm if there is still some swell running it is good to have the main and/or mizzen up, sheeted in, to keep the boat from rolling side to side. The slapping noise you will get used to. It's the howl from the galley when supper launches across the saloon that we are trying to avoid.
With the wind on the beam you can fly all sails. As the wind moves aft the main starts to blanket the headsail so we take the main down and pole out the headsail. As the wind goes further aft the mizzen starts to blanket the headsail and so bring it down if you've got one. Your headsail is most powerful when it is not getting bad airflow from other sails.
Motor on during squalls? What's that about? Don't add to your potential problems (ie: lines swept over the rail and into the prop). If you have tons of sea room and you can sail in the direction you want to go then reef down until you are comfortable. Caught by surprise? Turn and run. It reduces the pressure on the sails while you figure out what the hell you're going to do. Keep in mind that running can keep you in the squall for longer - a good thing if you're on course.
On a separate note: I know that the big guy has written a wonderful accounting of our New Zealand sailing adventure later in this issue. I want to say hey to a few people that helped out. Thank you to Cheryl and Jody for looking after the trip details when I was off on other sailing adventures. Thanks to cruisers Rick and Robin and Randy and Sheri. Hats off to the wonderful Kiwis that made our NZ visit so perfect. Our thanks to: Phil for the great cruising info and for being an instant friend. John M. and the Island Cruising Association for helping with our big party (and for being there for cruisers). Brenden, Daryl, Loraine and Dan and the rest of the shore crew for prepping the boats and always being so cheery. Tiny for 'volunteering' (great to see you again) and lead vocals. Olivia, we love you. Shane and Helen, you guys rock!!
Cruising questions? Help with your cruising project? Boat delivery? Captainwoody.com
I agree speed is storability. We were traveling east to west across the Atlantic and had torn the clew out of our chute, so we had the 130 up on the pole and the main with a singlw reef in it on the other side with a preventer running to the bow and one down the deck. Wind was average 24 kts. Gusting to 30. We were talking to some friends on the same passage on the ssb and I remarked what a wonderful sail it was. My friend came back telling me how rolly and uncomfortable it was and that they had just damaged the track for the jib car. When I asked him what sail he was carrying he informed me he had a several rolls in the headsail and a couple of reefs in the main. I told him what I was carrying and that we were not being over pressed. We talked a bit about it, we were doing steady 7s and 8s, he was doing 5 to 6. Our boat was 54’ his was 45 as I recall but our waterlines were close. (his was a Farr boat, ours was an Alden). If you are doing 8 kts down wind in 28 kts, your sails are only seening 20 kts of wind.
The next morning we spoke again and he had unrolled his headsail and shook out one of the reefs and was amazed at how much more comfortable the ride was.
Dead downwind as the wind comes up I will pull three reefs in the main before I start rolling the headsail in. All that power pulling from the bow is great. Also, I run the sheet for the headsail pretty far forward so it does not tend to slew the stern around. And my pole is toping lifted, downhauled and a preventer running forward as well. I like it not to move, it will tend to creep aft on the sheet without the forward preventer. Normally it is just two of us on board and this rig is simple and easy for one person to handle.
In lighter wind, say 22 kts and under without a chute I find it better to broad reach rather than wing and wing, less rolling and better boat speed, VMG is about the same but it is much more comfortable.
I could sail downwind forever!
Stability... not storability... spell checker took charge there for a moment...
Never thought of using the boom as a spinnaker pole... Great article...
Captain Woody's World
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