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I don’t think there are any specific definitions. The terms have just grown into common usage becoming part of the language of sailing.

The RYA. Have specific minimum requirements for a voyage to qualify as meeting their requirements for their certification. Which is as close to an official definition you are likely to find.

Yacht master Coastal . Any tidal water. Apparently the Mediterranean isn’t coastal. Though it does have a lovely blue color

Yacht master Offshore. Passages must be over 60 miles from port to port. Only half must be tidal.

Yacht master Ocean. Minimum non stop 600 miles with a shortest distance of 200 miles and at least 50 miles from land.

(No mention of the tide so I suppose the Med isn’t coastal but could be offshore half the time and is an ocean. Provide you can go 200 miles in a straight line and get at least 50 miles from land at some point)

Insurance policies have a variety of definitions depending upon which company and in which country.

Or you could use the Canadian and American limits for a Coastal Master Licence. Up to 200 miles anywhere from the Artic down to 6 deg north. Out to Bermuda and Hawaii is considered Near Coastal.

My interpretation would be

Coastal any where within sight of land.
Offshore any time you leave sheltered water which may still be coastal. May loose sight off land for anything up to a couple of days.
Blue Water some where tropical. (the water is rarely blue in higher latitudes)
Ocean out of sight of land for at least a couple of days choosing routes by weather patterns and currents
 
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